Cryptorchidism is defined as the arrested development of the testis / testes
along its normal course.
It is: Unilateral in about 75% of cases and
Bilateral in 25%. Arrested
descent may occur anywhere along its pathway from the retroperitoneum to the
scrotum. 80% of undescended testes lie at or
below the level of the
Cryptorchidism in Prune Belly Syndrome
The diagnosis depends on Normal Testicular Descent
into the scrotum.
The diagnosis is important as the testes degenerates histologically as early
as 1-2 years of age. Both testes may be affected, even with a unilateral,
undescended testis. Cryptorchidism results in an increased risk of infertility
and testicular cancer. The risk of testicular malignancy is 10-40 fold higher
in men with cryptorchidism than in normal men.
Cryptorchidism is the most frequent anomaly of an endocrine gland, with an
incidence of 3.4% in the term newborn, and 0.8-1% at 1 year of age (1).
syndrome (bilateral cryptorchidism).
- Anorchia (bilateral
syndrome (agonadism or normal gonads).
13, 18 and 21.
- Other associations include:
de Lange syndrome
- 18 q
- Desgrandchamps F.
Undescended testes. Current stage of knowledge. J Urol (Paris)
- Rajfer J. Congenital
Anomalies of the testis. In: Walsk DC, Retick AB, Saney TA, et al. Campbell's Urology. W. B. Saunders,
Harcourt, 6th edition, 1992, pp. 1543-1562.
- Bartone FF, Schmidt MA:
Cryptorchidism: incidence of chromosomal anomalies in 50 cases. J Urol
- Bishop MC, Whitaken, RH.
Associated renal anomalies in familial cryptorquidism (letter). Lancet
- Czeizel A, Erodi E, Toth J.
Genetics of undescended testis. J Urol 1981;126:528-529.
- Geffner ME, Lippe BM: Genetic and
endocrinologic syndromes associated with cryptorchidism. in The
undescended testis. Ed. EW Fonkalsrud, W. Mendel. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publisher,